For some odd reason, I’m a little obsessed with scarf joints. Dunno why. I notice them when I travel and see old structures. I took photos of them at Czocha castle. Anyway, I’ve had it on my bucket list to make some and it has taken up way too much brain time. So I made one to get it out of my system.
It started out cutting down a hackberry tree in the back yard. Lopping off a straight limb and then hatcheting it to reasonable square. From there, I used my japanese plane to make it square and flat. Once I have useable dimensional stock, I then made a template of the joint and drew it on the side of the stock to guide the saw cuts. I may have made the points a bit too sharp as it was a pain to get a chisel in there, so next time, a much lower angle of attack.
If this scarf joint was used for some serious load bearing application, I’d have used a 1:8 ratio of thickness of beam:length of scarf. Since this was a demo I just did 1:2.
The complete keyed scarf joint. The peg would normally be sawn off flush, but I leave it proud since it is a demo joint.
The two halves of the scarf, with a cedar peg.
I’d made a 1×1 before from hackberry but it was not good wood nor green.
Used these plus the carpenters square and plane to make the stock dimensional.
The drain is done! Hallelujah. Total cost DIY plus some labor of about $1800. Had to rent a jackhammer to deepen the drain and the water pipe channel in the back yard by 4-6″. Once the ditch was dug, we ran a garden hose to it and filled it with water to check the level, making sure it drained. Once confirmed, we lined it with landscape cloth, put in the plastic french drain pipe withe perforations, then the gravel, then a layer of landscape cloth over it. Then 3″ of gravel again and the paving stones over it. This all leaves the 8″ before you reach floor level in the house.
Connecting drain to water runoff pipe. The drain collects it, the runoff pipe takes it away from house. The pipe isn’t connected yet in the photo.
Under best practices I would have used a white perforated pipe for the French drain pipe, to make it easier to clean-out in 10-20 years. But the previous contractor already had the corrugated black one, so it was reused. Plus, the ideal gravel is supposed to be 3/4″ diameter, and I had 2-3″ gravel which could be used for a French drain without the pipe itself. So basically I have two drains in play.
French Drain done! With paving stones in middle so wheelbarrows can navigate atop it.
The paving stones we laid on top were about $1.50/sq ft which is more than I pay for tile, but the wife had a good point, we needed to roll wheelbarrows along it. The 2-3″ gravel is an ankle twister to walk over, a wheelbarrow is worse.
The connection from a 4″ French drain pipe to a 2″ PVC pipe was done using a drain grate box of 4″ to 4″ then a 4×3″ adapter and a 3×2″ adapter as you see in the picture.
I leveled out the runoff line to drain the French drain, and realized that once I put in the PVC pipe, if I fill in the ditch with 2″ gravel, I can drain the yard there as well. The space between the outside of the pipe and the ditch is the annulus and so I call it the annulus drain. So the pipe takes water away from the side of the house, and the annulus gravel drain takes it from the low part of the yard.
Runoff line in place with gravel by it to make a annulus drain as a bonus. Where the large standing paving stone slabs are is where we get standing water after a rain.
The French drain in action. There is no sign of water at the side of the house. On the right you see the swale that captures water for the orchard. It is about 20′ long.
While the primary drain water is obvious, notice the water on the ground the pipe midway, That is draining from the annulus drain! It works!
Update June 3, 2016 – hit with 3″ rain in 2 hours. 2″ diverter pipe at 1/2 capacity and working like a champ.
3″ of rain in 2 hours, The 2″ pipe was running half capacity.
Had a good week of finishing projects. Finally got the axe hafted with the Douglas axehead. Wickedly heavy brute of 9# and sharp as sin.
Also finished the first notebook cover. Using 2-3mm veg tanned leather, a hilighter stain, and some tooling. I got damn lucky that someone did most of my design for me at http://www.123rf.com/photo_13186022_old-castle-czocha-in-poland-on-sketch.html which is Czocha from College of Wizardry 4.
I took the vectorized outline and then wetted the leather, let it dry 10 minutes then taped the printout over the leather and used a stylus to push lines into the leather. Then an x-acto knife and swivel knife to make the cuts.
After which I used highlight stain to stain the cut lines, then saddle tan dye to darken it up.
I’ve got a 1890’s Douglas Axehead model ‘Pittsburgh” for hewing. One side is beveled and it is a little offset for hewing timber into lumber. I hafted it with mountain cedar (juniper actually) and after an hour of use the beefy handle broke much to my surprise. It was a *very* beefy handle overly thick and still it broke. That tells me juniper is quite brittle and can’t use it for handles for striking tools. I still have one on my spoon hatchet but it has broken once, an I merely reused the handle because it was too long anyway.
I’m using oak this time, it worked for my mallet, which also had a broken juniper handle. The handle is naturally curved oak wood from the tree that fell in my front lawn. I’ve gotten it shaped to roughly what I want, I’m going to leave it to dry for another 2 weeks then work it down to the final shape. I really want to avoid any shrinkage after fitting.
On length, it is for hewing not felling. So shorter than a felling axe, and research says about 28-30″. After all, this axe is just going up and down to chop off wood lumps between the jogs.
May 2, 2016
Finished the hafting. Leather cover from scrap leather and some tooling tools.
Douglas Pittsburg 9# axehead on a 29″ handle. 32″ from bottom of handle to toe of axehead.
Been building out an external power pack for my Dewalt tools. A 5S8P (5 series by 9 parallel) Lithium Co pack of old laptop 4.2v 2.2ah batteries. Version 1.0 got the 18ga wire warm, which surprised me. So I upgraded to 16ga wire and added another 2P to make the 2.0 version of the current 5S8P that should put out at 1C about 16amps (2.2ah x 8amps – degradation). And about 30amps if pushed to 2C. I sense no warm up now.
But I wanted to know how many amps the Sawzall, so I hooked up a analogue amp meter and saw it pulls 9.5 amps steady state, no load. On the ramp up to steady state it jumped to 15amps+ for a moment but my amp meter only went to 15.
Well, first 18650 laptop batteries are Lithium Cobolt Ion. Other 18650s, especially high current (10+amps) and Tesla 18650s are other chemistries. But I never seem to get my hands on those, only spare laptop batteries.
Normally, I try to build ebike battery packs with my 18650s. I need 100+ and I make a 13s10p pack (for those not in the know, when you see 13S10P or 5s2p it means series/parallel, ie. 13s10p is 13 in series (13×4.2 = 54.6volts) and 10 parallel (each cell is degraded to about 2000mah or 2ah so 10×2=20 amp hours aka 20ah).
Anyway, I test incoming 18650s by charging them up to 4.15 volts (not 4.2 because some 18650s aren’t designed to go that high) and then wait 2 weeks and measure the batteries. I then rank them by how much voltage they’ve self-discharged
4.13 – 4.15 Excellent
4.06- 4.10 Poor. Only for non-bike projects
<4.05 throw out, these obviously have internal damage and can be dangerous
These Poor quality is still good enough for non-critical projects like building packs for inverters or retooling NiCad tools to 18650s.
Converting Cordless with external pack
So I had 2 cheap drills who’s packs were dying and I converted them over to 18650s because I had some spares from a pack built (see Homemade Pack thread)
And I posted a thread about a dangerous voltage inversion on one of the 18650s that I pushed too hard, at which point it devolved into a tool conversion thread. Thus, here is a thread for DIY tool conversions.
For my 18v cheap drill, I opened the battery case, ripped out the guts, kept the connector and shoved 4s2p into the case and wired it up. No balance lead, I just want to see how it performs over time.
For the 12v drill, I did the same thing but only put in a 3s2p pack. You need to understand that typical laptop cells can only push 1C discharge continous and peak 2C . The average laptop cell these days is 2.4ah therefore 1C is 2.4 amps. However, they have degraded usually to 2ah so therefore 1C is 2amps and 2C is 4amps. If I have a 3s2p, that means I have 2 parallel for 4ah and capable of 4amps continuous and 8 peak. That is good enough for a cheap drill, but not a high quality drill. If you want to convert a high amp draw drill you may need to go to hobby king and buy a 10C 3-4ah pack. They will fit in the old drill battery pack (you must check reference sheet for dimensions!). In my case I had an idea for an external pack.
My 18v XRP Dewalt drill I’m more protective of. I have 3 batteries, 1 good, 1 bad, 1 dying at 15v. The bad one I ran with an idea someone mentioned of an external pack.
I opened the bad pack, ripped out all the cells but the one in the stem. The stem has a cell that fits perfect. It holds the connector fine, so I fixed it in place and soldered a bypass around it to the connector. Then ran these 18ga wire to an external pack and put them in a leather hip pouch that is thick enough to protect it in the field. I found the 18ga wire gets hot while using a sawsall. I’ll fix that with 14 or 10ga wire from my stocks.
The pack itself was 5s6p at about 12ah, with a balancing lead coming off it. I just used packing tape to tape that out of the way while in the pack.
It should be able to supply 24amps at peak pull. For charging, I’m just using the alligator clips on my icharger to clip to + and – and charge off of it. In the future as I convert the rest, I’ll convert the stock Dewalt charger with a modded meanwell or other powersupply.